Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Leisure Outfit Ltd (LOL) - Assignment Example The bank currently wants the overdraft amount to be reduced over the tenure of next six months. In this regard, the paper presents a comprehensive analytical report to the board of directors of the company on the financial position of LOL so that the roots of the problem is understood and resolved accordingly. Two problems have been detected so far with respect to the company and these are the excessive dependency on over-draft and cash management. It is expected that this situation will affect firmÃ¢â¬â¢s short term and long term solvency as well. Considering this factors, the ratio analysis was considered appropriate for evaluating financial position and profitability of the company. The cash position of the company will also be compared between both the years so as to understand where the firm has been investing most of its cash. The liquidity assessment is best conducted with the help of current ratio and acid test ratio. The current ratio points towards a proportionate financial relationship between current assets and current liabilities. The current assets of LOL have improved from Ã £4356, 000 to Ã £9974, 000 which can be considered healthy but deeper analysis suggest the sharp decline in the cash position of the company. In addition, inventory has also increased significantly over the year. The ratio has shrunk from 1.76 to 1.13 indicating illiquidity. The other reasons for the decline were determined to be high overdraft that the company received from the bank and almost doubled trade payable. Considering other factors being justifiable, the issue related to the sharp decline in cash require significant attention of the management (Penman 1-35). In addition to that, the acid test ratio revealed that the ratio has declined from 0.78:1 to 0.47:1 which is again another concerning area. The main reason was determined to be the high amount of stocked inventory.Ã
Monday, July 22, 2019
Operant Conditioning Experiment Essay I chose to involve the 1-year and a couple of months old son of my good friend and neighbor (named Judith) for my Operant Conditioning Experiment. Shawn, as we fondly call the toddler, happens to be extraordinarily shy. He would rather stay around the presence of his mom or dad than enjoy playing with other kids. He shuns most, if not all occasions of interaction with other fellows. I, for my part, have tried to Ã¢â¬Å"sneakÃ¢â¬ him away from his parents (with their permission, of course), to no avail. Instances in the Experiment I set for myself a modest goal Ã¢â¬â i. e. , to be able to make Shawn a little more comfortable with the company of someone other than his parents for at least 5 minutes. What I did was to spend some time, about an hour, in my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s home after school. I asked my friend to bring Shawn to the living room area, where we would chat while sitting on the couch. In the process, I would give Shawn some cookies (oat meal cookies are his favorite) on the condition that he would sit by my lap. The first day was a complete mess. Judith brought with her Shawn to the living room, but ended up catering to his tantrums. He appeared restless that time. The second day was the formal start of the experiment. Shawn sat near her mom by the couch. I handed him over an oatmeal cookie but he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t accept. He only got it when Judith convinced him to do so. Come third day, we did the same routine again. I offered Shawn an oatmeal cookie and pulled it back again and again just as he was about to get it. The concept was that I needed to ask him to sit nearer my place before I would give in letting him have the cookie. Still, the experiment proved unsuccessful. I got almost the same results on the fourth day of my experiment. But I was feeling happy that ShawnÃ¢â¬â¢s uneasiness with my presence appears to be waning. The fifth day however, I saw a significant development. When I asked him to sit beside me while offering the cookie, Shawn got up to get the cookie from where I was, and sat for a few seconds. He then got up again, holding his cookie, and got back to his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s place in the couch. Evaluation of the Experiment Firstly, I must say that I did not meet the goal of my experiment, i. e. , to make Shawn enjoy my company even for 5 minutes. While I got Shawn to become a little less uneasy with my presence, and in fact got him to get his cookie and sit beside me for a few seconds, the fact that I was not able to make him stay with me at least for 5 minutes renders the experiment only as a relative success. Looking back, I have three realizations to make in relation to the experiment. First, I may have set a goal which is too much for Shawn to handle. Second, the experiment duration of 5 days may be too short for someone as timid and shy as Shawn. Third, I realized that Operant Conditioning may entail exploring other motivations to elicit behavioral change. If only I have explored offering him other enjoyable stuff like toys, I may have gotten better results from my experiment. Had I used more appealing reinforcers to help my experiment, I believe that my experiment would have generated better and more successful outcomes.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Syndetic And Asyndetic Coordinations English Language Essay The concept of cohesion is a semantic one; it refers to relations of meaning that exist within a text, and that define it as text. Cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some element in the discourse is dependent on that of another. The one presupposes the other, in the sense that it cannot be effectively decoded except by recourse to it. When this happens, a relation of cohesion is set up, and the two elements, the presupposing and the presupposed, are thereby at least potentially integrated into a text. Carter defines cohesion as the demonstrable pattern of the texts integrity, the marks of its hanging together (245). Coordination is a part of the system of a language. As a tool of cohesion, coordination is a process used in a language to combine units to make other units.Ã It is part of the basic efficiency of language through which simple units like phrases and the simple sentence are re-cycled to make longer and perhaps more complex units. Ã Coordinationinvolves the linking of units, in coordination; the units are constituent of the same level. In relating coordination to cohesion in poetic texts, reference needs to be made to the structural definition of poems; As Bloom asserts: Poems are not things but only words that refer to other words and those words refer to still other words, and so on into the densely overpopulated world of literary language. Any poem is an inter-poem, and any reading of a poem is an inter-reading.  You cannot write or teach or think or even read without imitation, and what you imitate is what another person has done, that persons writing or teaching or thinking or reading. Your relation to what informs that person is tradition. (107-108). Bloom is also of the view that: What makes possible reading and writing is not a single anterior action which serves as origin and moment of plenitude but an open series of acts, both identifiable and lost, which work together to constitute something like a language: discursive possibilities, systems of convention, clichÃ ©s and descriptive systems. (110) 1.1 RESEARCH PROBLEM Poetic text may appear as fragmented association of words on the page. Yet, it makes powerful impressions and has a huge communicative effect. What text-forming resources contribute to this apparent meaningfulness? And in what ways are these resources employed in poetic text? How does this knowledge illumine our understanding of text and texture? These problems are addressed in the present study. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of this study are as follows: To examine the language of the selected poems of ChicayaUtamsisBOW HARP. To provide a better understanding and appreciation of the elements of coordination as employed in the poems. As Leech Shortassert: The poet does interesting things with language in poetry; aesthetic effect cannot be separated from the creative manipulation of the linguistic code inherent in the language. (2) This study, hence, set out to analyze some six selectedpoems of TchikayaUtamsititled Bow Harp. 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Since researches in this area of study have not been exhaustively conducted, it is hoped that this studymay have its own contribution as it applies to analysis ofcoordinations in poetic texts. 1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This research project is concerned with the analysis of BOW HARP which was originally written in French by TchicayaUtamsi and translated into English by Gerald Moore. The selection of the particular poems to be analyzed in this study is based on the recurrent themes they reflect and the belief that the poems manifest significantly the thematic concerns of the poet. The poems are selected and analyzed to discover how coordination is used in explicating certain message of the poet . The study endeavors to discuss the concept of coordination as it relates to cohesion. The present study focuses on the level of coordination and textual cohesion in the text. Hence, particular attention is given to the prominent coordinating features such as conjunctions, and, or, but. 1.5 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY The research examines coordination against the background of cohesion. The thematic function of the text forming resources is analyzed in the framework of conjunctions. The poetic texts are closely examined and used as a background to the analysis. Nevertheless, reference has been made to articles, journals and other scholarly books. THE POET TCHICAYA U TAMSI TchicayaUTamsi(1931-1988), the oldest of a generation of important Congolese writers, is one of the few whose reputation has reached beyond the confines of francophone Africa and France. While recognizing him as one of the leading contemporary African poets, critics and readers remain strangely reserved. Tchicayas writing defies classification. His intensely personal worldview and poetic expression create his own individual mythology, which sets him apart from all neat literary categories. His poetry is often described as hermetic. At the same time the poets obvious mastery of his medium precludes his being dismissed as obscure or unintelligible. At times Utamsis own words would seem to confirm his link with the surrealists. The surrealist poets highly individualistic message was dictated by his subconscious being, which he believed to be the echo of the universal consciousness. It was expressed by an arbitrary association of words which, at first reading, the poet often understood no better than the reader. Thisis very different from Utamsis dense and at times esoteric imagery, by which he expresses his profound and passionate identification with the suffering of Africa and, more particularly, of the Congo. Utamsis imagery is distinguishable from that of the surrealists because of its coherent scheme of reference and worldview. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. INTRODUCTION This chapter is devoted to throwing some light on the theoretical aspects of the research work. The term coordination is central to this study. Nevertheless, derivations of coordination as a branch of linguistic study, how it has been explained and used in other genres will be looked at in order to set-up a conceptual framework that would help to make things clear and lay the foundation for subsequent analysis. 2.1. The Concept in Focus 2.1.1 Coordination Haspelmath(2000) defines coordination as syntactic constructions in which two or more units of the same type are combined into larger units and still have the same semantic relations with other surrounding elements (1). Bloomfields similar definition of coordination contrasts it with subordination: Endocentric constructions are of two kinds, co-ordinative(or serial) and subordinative(or attributive). In the former type the resultant phrase belongs to the same form-class as two or more of the constituentsIn subordinative endocentric constructions, the resultant phrase belongs to the same form-class as one of the constituents, which we call the head. (195). Both of these definitions are syntactic, and emphasize the balanced syntactic relationship between coordinated items. In addition, both definitions state that the structure resulting from coordination is of the same type (semantic in Haspelmaths definition, syntactic in Bloomfields) as the coordinated items. Yuasa and sadock in agreement with the observation of Bloomfield further mention 5 criteria that confirms the presence of coordination: Reversibility: changing the order of the conjuncts does not affect the truth conditions. Application of the coordinate structure constraint: the constituents of one clause cannot be questioned separately. No backward anaphora: a pronoun in the first clause cannot co refer with a full NP in the second clause. Multiple conjuncts are possible. All the conjuncts are equally asserted. (87-111.) Halliday and Hasan (1976) describe coordination as an intrasentential structural device. However, they do acknowledge that sets of sentences similar to coordination do exist especially if they share parallel structure, and view coordination as a structure of the paratactic type (223) CathrineFabricius-Hansen and Ramm, W. (2005) describe coordination as being used as a means of clause combining and information packaging at discourse level and differs from a sentence sequence by explicitly instructing the reader to keep the two propositions together in discourse processing. For example in establishing a discourse structure, licensing the inference of certain discourse relations to hold between the conjuncts, while blocking others. As a means of constructing (more) complex (clause/VP) constituents from simpler ones of the same syntactic category, coordination can be compared to certain kinds of adjunction, i.e. syntactic subordination (175-213). Coordination has been viewed by various scholars as processes used by languages to combine units to make other units. Or as a part of the basic efficiency of language through which simple units like phrases and the simple sentence are re-cycled to make longer and perhaps more complex units. Dickens (2009) re-categorizes coordinators as existing in a semantic clinewith disjuncts. By this he means a scale of varying levels of coordination: whilecoordinators such as and establish an equivalent and non-adverbial relationship betweentwo clauses such that neither is subordinate to the other, disjuncts like sinceestablishsome degree of indirectness and an adverbial relationship between the clauses (42:1076-1136). 2.2. Types of Coordination Syndetic and Asyndetic coordination Haspelmath and Quirk et al define asyndetic and syndetic coordination as Coordinate constructions lacking overt coordinator (asyndetic coordination) or having some overt linking devices such as conjunctions; and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet.(syndetic coordination). a). Slowly and stealthily, he crept towards his victim.(Quirk et al:50) And Asyndetic coordination as when the relationship of coordination is not marked overtly; a). Slowly, stealthily, he crept towards his victim. .(Quirk et al:50) Though there exist a relatively fixed order for subclasses of adjectives in asyndetic coordination, but the order is said to be relatively free when a coordinator is present. 2.3 Asyndetic Coordination 2.3.1 Asyndeton Kane (1988) states that despite its formidable name asyndeton is nothing more than a different way of handling a list or a series, Asyndeton uses no conjunctions and separates the terms of the list with commas. It differs from the conventional treatment of lists and series, which is to use only commas between all items except the last two, these being joined by a conjunction. Asyndeton is linked to asyndetic coordination. Asyndeton produces a hurried rhythm in the sentence. Corbett (1971) cites Aristotles observation that asyndeton was especially appropriate for the conclusion of a discourse, because there, perhaps more than in other places in the discourse, we may want to produce the emotional reaction that can be stirred by, among other means, rhythm, (470). Asyndeton is the instance of conjoining constructions in which there are no coordinators (also referred to as juxtaposition); monosyndeton, in which there is one coordinator; and polysyndeton, in which more than one coordinator is used. 2.4. Syndetic Coordination 2.4.1 Polysyndeton Polysyndeton is regarded as a way of handling a list or a series, places a conjunction (and, or) after every term in the list (except, the last). It is said to differs from the conventional treatment of lists and series, which is to use only commas between all items except the last two, these being joined by a conjunction'(Kane:1988). Polysyndeton is linked to Syndetic coordination , as opposed to Asyndeton which is linked to Asyndetic coordination. 2.5 Monosyndetic and Bisyndetic Coordination Coordinations may either have a single coordinator (monosyndetic) or two coordinators (bisyndetic). Haspelmath (2000) proffers some relevant constituency tests for monosyndetic coordination: (i) Intonation: In certain cases, English and forms an intonation group with the following phrase, not with the preceding phrase. (ii) Pauses: In English, it is much more natural to pause before and than after and. (iii) Discontinuous order: In special circumstances, the coordinands may be separated by other material, as when a coordinand is added as an afterthought. In English, the coordinator must be next to the second coordinand (e.g. My uncle will come tomorrow, or my aunt). Not my uncle or will come tomorrow, my aunt. (iv) (Morpho)phonological alternations: When the coordinator or one of thecoordinand undergoes (morpho)phonological alternations in the construction, this is evidence that they form a constituent together. (121) 2.6. The Nature of Coordination 2.6.1 Contrastive Coordination 2.6.2 Conjunction and Disjunction Haspelmath (2000) states that many languages distinguish between normal coordination such as A and B, X or Y, which may also be referred to as conjunctionand what might be called contrastive coordination: both A and B, either X or Y. The semantic difference he views is that in contrastive coordination, it is emphasized that each coordinand belongs to the coordination and each of them is considered separately. Hence, it creates opposing notion of meaning inherent in the text because two things cannot be separately similar. And like conjunction, Haspelmath (2000) regard disjunction markers as often polyfunctional. Dickens (2009) states that Disjuncts display some coordinator-like properties, so they are grouped on a continuum with coordinators (1089). Halliday and Hassan (1976) see conjunction as a cohesive device that relates sentences. Conjunctive elements they state: are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings; they are not primarily devices for reaching out into the preceding text, but express certain meanings which presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse (226). As similarly described by Bloor and Bloor (1995). Halliday and Hasan (1976) indicate that conjunctive relations are not tied to any particular sequence in the expression. Nevertheless, they argue that amongst the cohesion forming devices within text, conjunction is seen as the least directly identifiable relation. Conjunction they assume act as semantic cohesive tie within text in four categories: Additive, adversative, causal and temporal. Additive conjunction acts to structurally coordinate or link by adding to the presupposed item and are signaled through and, also, too, furthermore, additionally, etc. Additive conjunction may also act to negate the presupposed item and is signaled by nor, andnot, either, neither, etc. Adversative conjunctions act to indicate contrary to expectation (250) and are signaled by yet, though, only, but, in fact, rather, etc. Causal conjunction expresses result, reason and purpose and is signaled by so, then, for, because. Adversative coordination seems always binary; it must consist of two coordinands, so is described as causal and then is described as temporal (227). Halliday and Hassan acknowledge that conjunction is derived from coordination, they argue that Conjunction Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ is not simply coordination extended so as to operate between sentences, noting that one difference between coordinate and and conjunctive and is that coordinate and can link any number of items, whereas conjunctive and links pairs of sentences.Ã They view conjunctions as expressing one or other of a small number of very general relations (238). In the same vein Halliday and Matthiessen (1999) in relation to its cohesive function state that In conjunction, the various logical-semantic relations of expansion that construe clause complex structures Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ are deployed instead as a source of cohesion. They argue that among other resources which construe clauses and clause complexes into longer stretches of discourse without the formality of further grammatical structure are conjunction and lexical cohesion (530-31). Halliday and Matthiessen (1999) in extending the notion of language resources as tools of broadening and reaching out into meaning view that specific kinds of expansion or projection can be construed as either paratactic or hypotactic, insisting that some level of partial association exist, where some form of combinations are favored, while others are disfavored. They explain another kind of expansion in terms of conjunctive relations employing such conjunctions as and, or, but, instead, besides; as an additive, alternative, replacement, reservation, contrast. A third kind occurs with the use of adverbs functioning as conjunctions marking either the enhancing clause or correspondingly the one being enhanced (520-1). Scott Drellishak (2004) in his thesis: A Survey of Coordination Strategies in the Worlds Languages quotes Gleitman (1965) as viewing conjunction as one of many syntactic processes that serve the purpose of indicating contrast or reducing repetition ; conjoined sentence that does not indicate contrast or reduce repetition is described as not serving any purpose. (268) 2.7. Phrasal Coordination If two expressions have different semantic roles it will not be possible to coordinate them. Although it is sometimes said that the coordinands must belong to the same phrasal category; for instance, (tea) NP or (in a NigerianRestaurant) PP is said to be ungrammatical because it consists of an NP and a PP. However, coordination of different phrasal categories is often possible when both have the same semantic role. Also in phrasal coordination, the order of conjoined words can be influenced by the tendency for the shorter word to come first and within phrasal coordination, there can be ellipsis of the determiner (Quirk et al: 610). 2.8. Clausal Coordination When two or more clauses are coordinated, certain clause constituents are often ellipted from all but one of the clauses. More often than not, the effect of ellipsis is no more than to suggest a closer connection between the content of the clauses but sometimes the effect is to indicate that there is a combined process rather than two separate processes. And and or as clause linkers are restricted to initial position. Coordinated clauses with and and or are sequentially fixed in relation to the previous clause and cannot be transposed without producing ungrammaticality in sentence structure (Quirk et al: 553), a clause containing a conjunct may be linked to a preceding clause by one of the coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but) but not all the conjuncts admit each coordinator (Quirk et al:552-553). 2.9. Taxis in coordination The term taxis in English grammar means arrangement of units of ideas, thought, sentence constituents, structures that are grammatical constructs. In English grammar, taxis is categorized into two broad parts: I). Parataxis II). Hypotaxis Parataxis refers to the organization of clausal units on a parallel level employing coordinating conjunctions as the case may be. The center point of coordination is considered to be parataxis. The elements placed side by side does not exhibit a dependency relation and exists in no specified order of occurrence. Lakoff (1971) and Martin (1983) view Parataxis as the hallmark of coordination. Most often, the equality of the clauses is said to be clear both grammatically and semantically. Different units can be joined with Coordination at any level. The conjoined units, elements thus linked exhibit same semantic and syntactic category. This instance of conjoining equal grammatical structures (coordination) form our focus in this study and deviates from Hypotaxis which is the organization of constituents on a dependency relation with the use of subordinating conjunctions; it forms the basis of subordination in English grammar. 2.10. Symmetric and asymmetric coordination Coordinate constructions are said to have symmetrical properties such that conjuncts are paratactically construed, that a conjunct is not subordinated to another conjunct, that conjuncts have the same syntactic and semantic function ; on the other hand they have asymmetric properties such as command relationship between the first and the second conjuncts. This case is referred to as balanced and unbalanced case of coordination. 2.11. Approaches to Coordination Analysis and Coordination in Different Genres In poetic texts, the study of coordination is quite sparse and limited. For instance Miller (2007) explores biblical Hebrew poetry and the relationship of coordination to verbal gapping is what forms her point of focus. She comes up with the findings that asyndetic coordination is the hallmark of biblical Hebrew poetry and especially early poetry (41-60). Millers corpus contains 123 lines from the book of Isiah. Svetlana Petrova Michael Solf (2008) explore rhetorical relations and verb placement in the early Germanic languages. It presents a diachronic study about the distinction between coordination and subordination in discourse; it focuses on Old High German and on other early Germanic languages. Petrova and Solf consider other kinds of data, mostly from declaratives, in support of the claim that verb placement serves certain discourse functions in early Germanic languages. They come up with the finding that Verb fronting seems to have a clear functional purpose, as it is used to mark episode boundaries in Old High German. The study goes further in identifying some correlations between verb placement and discourse-structuring phenomenon in Old English, Old Saxon, and Old Norse, with similar discourse-structuring functions. A cross -linguistic approach is adopted in the study as opposed to functional approach in analysis. Ash Asudeh and Richard Crouch (2002) examine Coordination and Parallelism in Glue Semantics exploring points of convergence and divergence between approach to coordination and similar Categorial Grammar (CG) approaches. The research discusses parallelism in connection with the Coordinate Structure Constraint. The paper presents an account of the semantics of coordination, framed within the theory of Glue Semantics. The goal of a GLUE derivation as explicated in the study is to consume all the lexical premises to produce a single conclusion; stating the meaning of the sentence. Further asserting that Semantic ambiguity results when there are alternative derivations from the same set of premises. This study shares common interest with the present one as both relates coordination to instances of cohesion. While this study argues for glue approach to coordination the present study differs on the ground of functional approach of analysis. David Bell (2007) examines both the frequency and function of SIA (sentence initial and) and SIB (sentence initial but) in academic writing and its importance in understanding language in literary texts. While coordinator and is more frequent in academic prose than but, SIA is much less frequent than SIB. Collected data show a marked difference in the use of SIA and SIB across different genres of academic writing with SIA and SIB being far more prevalent in the humanities journals. Furthermore, the study shows that SIA, when compared with other additive connectives such as moreover, furthermore, in addition, etc., is the most frequently occurring additive marker in academic writing, while SIB is the second most preferred connective after however. With regard to function, the study goes on to argue that both SIA and SIB in academic writing function in three very similar ways: (i) to mark off a discourse unit by indicating the last item on a list; (ii) to indicate the development of an argument; and (iii) to indicate a discontinuity or shift with a previous discourse unit. This is in line with Halliday and Hassans (1975) view as regard the function of SIA and SIB. The study further asserts that whereas the most common function of SIA is that of indicating the last item on a list, the most common use of SIB is in the development of arguments. It argues that SIA and SIB perform special functions than the alternatives of asyndetic or zero coordination, the use of discourse markers that share their broad semantic function: Moreover, furthermore, in addition, and however, respectively, or intrasentential coordination cannot perform. The study proffers that the features allow SIA and SIB to preface a wider range of lexico-grammatical units such as interrogatives, stance adverbs and other discourse connectives and to create a tighter cohesive fit. It comments that it is these special features of cohesion which are held to explain the occurrence of SIA and SIB in academic writing. The focus here is on the use of SIA and SIB in academic discourse, it excluded occurrences of SIA and SIB in academic writing from other modes such as in transcripts of conversations, in quotes from fiction or in poetic texts which is the sole focus of the present research. Halliday and Hasan (1975) on SIA as part of their larger discussion of conjunction as one cohesive device in the concept of cohesion describes coordination as an intrasentential structural device while conjunction is seen as a cohesive device that relates sentences. In their examination of conjuncts, SIA is described as signaling an additive relationship between sentences while but is described as an adversative. Halliday and Hasan note that one difference between coordinate and, and conjunctive and, is that coordinate and can link any number of items, whereas conjunctive and links pairs of sentences (235). Halliday and Hasan distinguish a further use of SIA, which they suggest comes closest to its structural function as a coordinator, they call it next in a series' (236). They suggest that another example would be a series of points all contributing to one general argument. In this function, Halliday and Hasan argue that And retains some of the retrospective or retrojective effect, i.e. projecting backwards that and has as a coordinator (236). Here, SIA is viewed as signaling not the last item on a list but rather the continuation of an ongoing list of items. The study explicates that however, apart from the cases cited above where cohesive And operates similarly to coordinator and, the typical context for SIA is one where there is a total, or almost total shift in the participants from one sentence to the next, and yet the two sentences are very definitely part of a text (235). Another common context in narrative fiction for this shift is at the boundary of dialogue and narrative. What have been shown here is that SIA and SIB provide special features of cohesion that alternative forms of coordination do not. Schiffrin (1986, 1987, 2006) examines utterance and turn-initial and in conversation. She argues that and has two roles in talk: An ideational role where it coordinates idea units what she calls a discourse coordinator role, and an interactional or pragmatic or discourse marker role where it continues a speakers action, i.e. marking the speakers upcoming utterance as a continuation of the content and structure of an interaction, and these two functions most often occur simultaneously (1987: 128). As a marker of functionally differentiated idea units, the presence of and signals that the speaker identifies an upcoming unit as structurally coordinated or equivalent to a prior unit. In this way, and can differentiate among other things in narrative, support and position in arguments and explanations, and can also differentiate discourse topics. However, Schiffrin stresses that identifying the nature of these units depends on textual information beyond and itself (1987: 141). In Summary Halliday and Hasan (1976), and Schiffrin (1986, 1987, 2006),see SIA as bracketing discourse units, continuing discourse units, or signaling a shift between discourse units; and what determines the discourse function of these signaled discourse units is constructed by the interaction of the linguistic properties of and with the discourse context in which it occurs. Sotirova (2004), using the works of D.H. Lawrence, has argued that SIA, as well as other connectives, are used by Lawrence to signal perspectival shifts in free indirect style (227). Huttar (2002) has examined the use of both discourse-initial and (DIA) and SIA in poetry. Huttar argues that DIA is often used to establish an imagined context already in progress or imagined prior events from which the present utterance is understood to continue. An extremely common form of DIA is that of a question addressed in response to an implied interlocutors statement and often expressing surprise at the previous implied statement. Cotter (2003) on the other hand examines the use of SIA and SIB in newspapers over a one hundred year period. She used a 100,000-word corpus of newspaper articles a mixture of local and national syndicated articles, general news, and feature articles published between 1900 and 1995. Over this period, she noted an increasing occurrence of SIA/B and concurrent decline in temporal connectives. Among other factors, Cotter argues that these connectives help to create local and global coherence in news narratives, introduce new speakers and ideas, and link a series of short paragraphs. Cotter sees this increasing use of SIA/B as indicative of a historical shift from more text-centered to more reader-centered prose. Dorgeloh (2004) looked at SIA in a corpus of British English made up of LOB (Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen, 1961) and FLOB (Freiburg Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen, 1991). She indicates a decline in the use of SIA in both academic and newspaper writing. From her analysis she concludes that in written Modern English, SIA, where it does occur, marks functional shifts on a more global level of discourse (1777). From the literature reviewed, it becomes evident that there is prevalence in the use of additive and in academic discourse, prose, conversation, literary texts, newspapers, and in the humanities and social science fields generally. In frequency and function additive and is reckoned to be the most frequently occurring, followed by but; in poetic texts functionally, Huttar argues that and is often used to establish an imagined context already in progress or imagined prior events from which the present utterance is understood to continue while Halliday and Hasan (1976), and Schiffrin (1986, 1987, 2006),regard and as bracketing discourse units, continuing discourse units, or signaling a shift between discourse units. The subsequent analysis consider to what extent the frequency and functional assertions are based. This research departs from much of the previous studies, by presenting a functional linguistic analysis which was proffered by Halliday et al. Earlier researches often focus on the
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Juvenile Boot Camps For Offenders Criminology Essay The United States used to be a nation focused on rehabilitating juveniles that deviated from the social norms (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). This attitude was dramatically altered in the 1960s when public opinion of the medical model deteriorated and the punishment model started to gain support (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). This shift in ideals has resulted in an increased popularity of boot camp programs (Gover, MacKenzie, Armstrong, 2000). There has been a great deal of debate as to whether boot camps are more or less successful than traditional detainment facilities at reducing recidivism rates among juveniles (DeMuro, 2008). Despite the lack of empirical evidence that juvenile boot camps are more successful, they continue to gain popularity within the juvenile justice system (DeMuro, 2008). Boot camps are less cost effective, and no more successful at reducing recidivism rates among juveniles, than traditional treatment facilities. The first boot camps used as alternative punishments in the United States were created in Georgia and Oklahoma in 1983 (Tyler, Darville, Stalnaer, 2001). The first boot camp program oriented toward juveniles was created in Orleans Parish, Louisiana in 1985 (Tyler et al., 2001). Between 1985 and 1995, the number of juvenile boot camps had risen to more than 75, spanning across 13 states (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). Furthermore, Ardovini-Brooker Walker (2000) expected that half of all juvenile jurisdictions in the United States would have boot camp programs in place by the year 2000. There were many factors that gave rise to the popularity of juvenile boot camps. Ardovini-Brooker and Walker (2000) state six objectives of juvenile boot camps. The first objective of the boot camps was to alleviate the overcrowding facilities that were already in place (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). The second objective was to lower the cost of juvenile treatment by placing the juveniles in a program that took less time to complete (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). The third objective was to increase the perceived accountability of the juvenile justice system because many thought that it was too lenient with juvenile offenders (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). The fourth objective was to increase the rehabilitation of the juvenile offenders by placing them in a more structured environment (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). The fifth objective was to reduce juvenile recidivism rates through shock incarceration (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). The sixth and final objective of juven ile boot camp programs was to give back to the community by requiring the juveniles in the program to perform duties such as liter pick-up (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). Both adult and juvenile boot camps were designed for first time or less violent offenders and are considered to be as a type of shock incarceration (DeMuro, 2008). Experts believe that the radical change in behavior that offenders will experience in a boot camp should be enough to scare or Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ãâ¦Ã¢â¬Å"shockÃ ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬Ã them straight (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). Boot camps achieve this radical change by incorporating basic elements of military philosophy (Gover et al., 2000). Juvenile boot camps are supposed to provide intense physical activity and a healthy atmosphere that result in a favorable background for therapy and education (Styve, MacKenzie, Gover, Mitchell, 2000). These boot camps can vary in length of time but are generally between 90 and 120 days (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). The programs incorporate elements of military boot camps such as uniforms, marching, calisthenics, and running various types of drills (Styve et al., 2000). These elements are supposed to combine to make the boot camp a life changing event for the juvenile offender (Tyler et al., 2001). There are many experts who are opposed to using juvenile boot camp programs as a means of punishment or rehabilitation. These experts point to the fact that there is no empirical evidence that boot camp programs actually reduce recidivism rates and that boot camp programs are not cost effective (DeMuro, 2008; Tyler et al., 2001). Styve et al (2000) stated that boot camps may not provide the necessary care and attention to individuals that is required for rehabilitation to take place. These same experts believe that the system would be better off using the traditional facilities and supervised probation programs already in place (Tyler et al., 2001). The first problem with juvenile boot camp programs that many experts cite is that there is still relatively little empirical data to support the claim that they reduce recidivism rates (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJJDP] stated that the use of juvenile boot camps has had no effect on the rates of juvenile recidivism (Tyler et al., 2001). Experts in the juvenile justice field believe that this may be a result of the lack of uniformity among the many boot camp programs (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000). Some examples of this lack of uniformity would include: the duration of the boot camp (90-120 days), which of the six objectives the camp is focused on, the type of offender that is sentenced to the boot camp, and whether or not there is an intensive after care program that is used in conjunction with the boot camp itself (Ardovini-Brooker Walker, 2000; Tyler et al., 2001). A second criticism of juvenile boot camp programs is that they are not cost effective. According to OJJDP, juvenile boot camps cost nearly 10 times more than juvenile probation programs per offender (Tyler et al., 2001). In Texas in 1998, the cost per day of a juvenile in a boot camp was $88.62 (Tyler et al., 2001). At the same time, the cost for a juvenile in a traditional treatment facility was $85.90 per day, and the cost of probation per day was $8.44 (Tyler et al., 2001). Taking into account that juvenile boot camps help fewer offenders at a time, Tyler et al (2001) calculated the average cost of a boot camp program per juvenile per year to be $33,480. Further, they calculated the average cost of a traditional detainment facility to be $31,354 per juvenile per year. This, they stated, demonstrates that juvenile boot camps are not a cost effective alternative to using traditional facilities or probation. A third criticism of juvenile boot camps is that not all juveniles are suited mentally enough to handle the environment of a military style boot camp (Gover et al., 2000). There are many juveniles that cannot adjust to the sudden change in culture that is associated with boot camps (Gover et al., 2000). Gover et al (2000) claim that the harsh conditions at boot camps do not provide a stable environment that is healthy for therapy, which is a contradiction of one of the goals of juvenile boot camps. When selecting juveniles for boot camp programs, it is important to choose older youths who are less prone to experience anxiety, as those who are younger or are more prone to experience anxiety are less likely to be responsive to any treatment they may receive in a boot camp (Gover et al., 2000). Over the past few decades, juvenile boot camps have increased in popularity (Ardovini-Brooker, Walker, 2000). This trend has continued despite any lack of evidence that supports the idea that juvenile boot camps reduce recidivism rates (Ardovini-Brooker, Walker, 2000). It has also been shown that boot camp programs are not a cost effective alternative to traditional treatment, particularly when compared to supervised probation (Tyler et al., 2001). These facts have led many experts to believe that juvenile boot camp programs, as a whole, are not a successful alternative to traditional treatment facilities.
Gun Control Throughout America there is the constant debate concerning the second amendment or the right to bare arms. One day an innocent kid walking home from school gets shot in a drive by shooting is he just a victim of circumstance or could this of been easily prevented. There are lobbyist for the private ownership of guns and lobbyist for legislation to ban personal possession of guns for good. In this paper I hope that just maybe I can persuade you to think differently on a topic thatÃ¢â¬â¢s stirring up the nation. First you must look at the obvious problem first and foremost crime. 85% of all violent crimes are committed with handguns(Mosley,104). Some say that yes if these criminals are criminals simple legislation isnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to prevent them from getting handguns. I think this couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be more wrong in actuality lots of crimes are committed with guns that kids have taken from their parents. Every day you hear in the news kids killing kids weather itÃ¢â¬â¢s a school shooting or gangs and the easy availability of guns is just promoting the cause. If we pass legislation to get rid of these god like life takers then the kids canÃ¢â¬â¢t get to them. If you look at it thought it is a trickling down process. If guns arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as easily distributed to shops only a few shops would be permitted to carry them. Then of those few shops only under special circumstances could they sell them to some adults then only a fraction of the kids who had access to guns in the home before this legislation ...
Friday, July 19, 2019
Rafting the Nolichucky The Nolichucky River is a body of water that rises from the Blue Ridge Mountains in Western North Carolina and flows northwest into Tennessee, then goes west to join the French Broad River after running a course of 150 miles (Britanica. Com). The NolichuckyÃ¢â¬â¢s most action packed stretch of water runs through a beautiful stretch of the Pisgah and Cherokee National Forests. The whitewater on this river is truly world-class. If thrills and spills are what you love, then the Nolichucky, referred to commonly as the "Noli," is the place you need to check out. As a raft-guide on the Nolichucky this past summer, I highly recommend that any physically and mentally stable student who enjoys nature should give a white water-rafting trip some serious thought. For an individual with absolutely no experience, I would suggest starting on a mild part of the "Noli." The lower area of the Nolichucky offers a mild dose of rapids and is perfect for children and those with a low tolerance for danger and extreme sports. The lower "Noli" is a five-mile trip and usually takes anywhere form three to six hours. With only one Class III on the entire trip, one could almost take a nap on this raft trip. The upper section of the Nolichucky is where you are going to get to exercise those bellowing lungs. With an array of Class IV rapids, the upper section of the "Noli" promises to provide a day of thrills and spills. Before planning a white water rafting trip, I suggest everyone to be aware of certain things. First, this is a dangerous and physical event that requires some muscle and heart. For anyone with a weight problem, heart problems, or mental instability, this activity is not suggested by the companies who provide their services in this type of activity. If you have any questions about your ability to do an activity of this nature, consult a doctor first. The main goal for all of us is to have fun and be safe. The company that I work for is called Cherokee Adventures and is located about twenty miles south of the ETSU campus. From the Culp Center, this should be no more than a twenty five-minute drive. From the campus the you need go south in the direction of US181/23. Head south on 81/23 and go 15 miles from Johnson City.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Vegetable gardening as my favorite hobby Deepa George WGU February 20, 2013 Vegetable gardening as my favorite hobby Hobby is an entertaining activity which provides pleasure and recreation. It is a way of escaping from the stress and the monotony of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s daily round of duties. Therefore, hobby is essential for the proper enjoyment of life. My favorite hobby is vegetable gardening because it provides me sense of pride, peace, and relaxation, promote healthy life style and save money on groceries. You should start gardening as your hobby because it provides you relaxation, keeps you physically healthy, and save money on grocery bills. First of all, a vegetable garden is an easy and effective way to provide a sense of pride and relaxation. I am fortunate to have a spacious backyard for the gardening. I have vegetables and crops such as peas, lettuce, greens, cabbages, root crops, squash, beans, corn, melons, cucumber, eggplant, pepper, and herbs in my garden in different seasons. Research shows that gardening promotes mental health by relieving stress and promoting a sense of accomplishment. Spending some time in the garden ease stress, keep you limber and improve your mood. Vegetable gardening is a wonderful pastime the whole family can enjoy. Allowing children to be involved in the gardening help them to develop an understanding of nature, sense of responsibility, and pride. Kids are more likely to taste vegetables they grow themselves. My five year old son is proud about our vegetable garden. He helps us with watering the plants, caring for the crop and harvesting the produce. He was extremely reluctant to eat fruits and vegetables buying from the market, but now he does not want to miss anything coming from our garden. When your daughter Sara was in my house, she enjoyed peeking under leaves in search of ripe fruits and vegetables. Hence, I am sure that she will be so happy to have her own garden. Growing your own food, build a sense of pride and satisfaction. Watching a seed sprout in front of your eyes to become food on your plate is gratifying. The commitment for garden rewards you with a feeling that you have brought something to life. It is truly exciting to go to your backyard and get a juicy, ripened tomato for a salad. Now the weather is turning warm and favorable for planting. You should make a vegetable garden with your favorite vegetables like tomatoes, cucumbers and jalapeno peppers. The stores like Lowes, Home depot, and local seed stores have varieties of seeds with planting instructions. I will help you with picking out plants, preparing raised beds and containers, and fertilization of plants. I would like you to enjoy the sense of pride, accomplishment and relaxation by gardening which brings you close to nature. Secondly, planting vegetable gardening keeps you and your family healthy. It provides fresh fruits and vegetables right at your fingertips. Everybody is seriously concerned about the safety of the food available in the market. When you grow your own food carefully and organically, you do not have to worry about the contamination of the vegetables. When they grow in your backyard, you are not able to resist them, and their vitamin content will be at the highest level as you eat them straight from the garden. Thus, gardening is a simple and an easy way to promote good eating habits. Furthermore, gardening is a good outdoor exercise. Planting, weeding, watering, and harvesting require a lot of physical activity. Tending vegetable garden burns calories and uses muscles. Studies have shown that one can burn 200 to 500 calories per hour by working in the vegetable garden. The activities in the garden will give you sufficient physical exercise to keep you physically healthy and mentally alert. Finally, you will save money on groceries when you begin to stock your kitchen with fresh produce from backyard. It will help you to save money on gas you use to get to the store. To save money, you should plant smart and grow the food you like to eat. Make sure you grow a lot of vegetables that you use regularly. Since you like the salad, you should plant plenty of salad greens to save money. You can preserve the produce and enjoy the goodness of fruits and vegetables long after the harvest is over. There are four common ways to preserve foods: canning, freezing, drying, and pickling. Last year, I preserved beans, tomatoes, cucumbers, carrot and sweet corn and used for the rest of the year. You can share the extra vegetables with your friends, or sell in the fresh vegetable market. Every year I donate extra vegetables to a food pantry, and it helped me to take the tax deduction for non-cash distributions. You can save the seeds from the best produces, and use for next year. Gardening is an investment that offers a good return. For example, I have spent two dollar for one packet of green bean seeds. Once I cover the cost of soil, fertilizers, and water, I got a return of around seventy five dollars. I suggest you to start gardening as your hobby that produces positive economic return. Conclusively, vegetable gardening provides relaxation by getting a person outside and exposing to natural air. Planning a garden and caring for the garden help the person to stay healthy and save money. For all these reasons, I encourage you to choose vegetable gardening as your hobby.